HBO therapy was started when patients showed grade 2–3 HC. Response to HBO was defined as macroscopic hematuria disappearance within the first 2 weeks; patients without improvement were categorized as having treatment failure. The primary objective of this study was to access complete response to HBO treatment, defined as the disappearance of all symptoms, including macroscopic hematuria. Secondary objectives included a determination of the correlation between the time from hematuria onset to HBO therapy and the time from therapy to hematuria resolution, determined using standard Pearson correlation.
We can, therefore, conclude that patients who started HBO earlier after the diagnosis of HC responded sooner than those who started HBO later. When we compared the urine BK viral loads before and after HBO, we observed significant changes in log BKV load after HBO therapy in each individual patient, with the 16 patients showing a mean decrease in log urinary BK load after HBO treatment of −2.1 (P<0.05). Three patients discontinued HBO, one each because of ear barotrauma, pressure intolerance, and claustrophobia. One patient interrupted HBO temporarily owing to abdominal pain. Nevertheless, gross hematuria was eliminated in all patients, except for one with Fanconi anemia, who died because of a medical condition unrelated to HBO therapy.